Moderator Sarah Chan sets the tone for a day of intimate collaboration as she welcomes the

  • DLE allows the efficient processing of brines with a low carbon footprint
  • 5 categories of DLE technologies exist, each with advantages and drawbacks, and each at
    different stages of technological maturity
  • Dilute (sub-200 ppm Li) brine processing requires DLE technologies engineered specifically to
    process such low-grade brines
  • Dilute brine processing is the key challenge which can unlock the vast amounts of lithium
    needed to sustain electric vehicle and battery storage adoption from 2030 and beyond

Eric McShane| CEO| Electroflow Technologies

  • Traditional borehole sampling methods often miss the true variations in lithium brine
    concentrations because they mainly capture the dominant ambient flow at one depth. This
    masks the potentially rich, stratified lithium layers within the same well.
  • The solution lies in dynamic pumping techniques. By exceeding the ambient flow rate, pumped
    water draws in fluids from different horizons, revealing the hidden vertical variations in lithium
    concentration within the borehole.
  • Embracing dynamic pumping and its combination with slim hole profiling technologies improves
    lithium exploration efficiency and accuracy. This prevents unnecessary financial resources on
    missed extraction targets due to reliance on inadequate sampling methods.

Noah Heller | CEO| BESST, Inc

  • Potential of Geothermal Brines for Metal Production: The Salton Sea geothermal field in Imperial Valley, CA, produces hot, metalliferous saline geothermal brines that are theoretically capable of producing significant quantities of various metals, including manganese, lithium, zinc, strontium, and potassium. The production of lithium alone could generate nearly $3 billion in annual revenue.

  • Benefits of Geothermal Metal Production: The production of metals from Salton Sea geothermal brines could reduce U.S. imports significantly, establish domestic supply chains, and reduce transport costs. This method also has a smaller areal and carbon footprint than traditional production methods, reducing environmental impacts. The potential for using self-generated geothermal electricity to power domestic metals production could further reduce energy costs and potentially generate carbon credits.

  • Challenges in Geothermal Metal Production: There are several challenges to producing these geothermal metals, including finding extraction media that can withstand high salinities, temperatures, and corrosive pH values; keeping the flashed brine hot and free of precipitates that can clog extraction media and injection wells; scaling up direct lithium extraction technologies to extremely high brine flow rates; and reducing water consumption in the drought-stricken Colorado River basin.

Michael McKibben | Research Professor | University of California, Riverside

  • Fresh water consumption of direct lithium extraction (DLE) needs to be urgently quantified. Many DLE technologies might require larger freshwater volumes than current evaporative practices, compromising their applicability in arid locations.
  • Chemical processing is completed once a pure solid product is obtained. Energy consumption of DLE should be estimated for the overall process, including potential water extraction or evaporation from pure but dilute LiCl solutions, as is the case with many DLE technologies.
  • Lithium ions are only a minor component in continental, geothermal, and oilfield brines. Thus, from a circular economy perspective, there is potential for the extraction of more than one valuable mineral, notably borates, magnesium, potassium and sodium salts

David J. Stevenson | CEO| Lithium ONE Environmental Inc

  • The LIBs market is forecasted to reach at least US$221 B by 2024 using 20–25% CAGR.
  • Li production growth within the next five years will lag that of demand.
  • Major Li resources are found in Argentina, Australia, USA, Chile, Bolivia & China.
  • Current technologies for end-of-life LIBs recycling remain inefficient.
  • Waste streams, clays and geothermal brines are promising future Li resources.


Moderator Sarah Chan sets the tone for a day of intimate collaboration as she welcomes the

  • Optimizing Processing Efficiency: Understand how cutting-edge rectifiers can leverage advanced control algorithms and precise voltage regulation to optimize lithium processing efficiency, improving productivity and reducing energy consumption.
  • Strategic Investment Benefits: Explore tangible benefits and case studies from facilities that have adopted high-quality rectifiers, understanding the strategic advantages and return on investment associated with these cutting-edge rectification systems.
  • Budget-Conscious Solutions: Learn about control upgrades for existing rectifiers as a cost-effective alternative, allowing facilities to enhance performance without a complete overhaul. I'd like you to please discover how this approach extends equipment lifespan and ensures efficient processing within budget constraints.
  • Operational Impact: Gain insights into the direct operational impact of rectifiers, including improved system reliability, reduced downtime, and enhanced overall processing capabilities.
  • Customized Solutions: Understand how acquiring new rectifiers and control upgrades for existing systems can be tailored to meet specific facility needs, providing attendees with customizable solutions for their unique operational challenges.

Oscar Marin | Segment Manager, Mining| Dynapower

  • Lithium Concentration Variability: Lithium concentrations exhibit high variability across lithium deposits.
  • Aquifer Properties and Limitations: Host aquifers, composed of heterogeneous layered sediments, pose challenges for estimating lithium grade and specific yield.
  • Importance of Supporting Data: Brine mineral resource estimation requires data from field and laboratory testing programs.
  • Rapid Brine Release (RBR) Method: Developed in 2017, this laboratory test improves specific yield estimates and provides porosity and bulk density data.
  • Lithologic Units and Variability: Different lithologic units within deposits impact specific yield values, influenced by sediment texture, consolidation, and crystallization.

Michael Milczarek | President| GeoSystems Analysis, Inc

  • Maverick's BioExtraction ditches high heat and harsh chemicals, using microbes to turn hard rock lithium ores into usable brines, potentially with zero waste. This eco-friendly approach could revolutionize lithium extraction, but further details are needed to fully understand its impact.

Jesse Evans | Co-Founder and COO| Maverick BioMetals

  • These purpose-designed wells utilize capillary media placed just above the water table. The wells tap into the highest TDS groundwater.All companies in the battery value chain will need to prove that their materials are sourced sustainably.
  • The capillary media wicks water from below the water table to an area above it. Heated dry air is then passed across the media, causing water to evaporate.
  • The newly-moistened air is released into the atmosphere, while any dissolved solids precipitate and are captured on the capillary media.
  • Some of the captured constituents may be valuable resources. When in solid form, they become more recoverable

Shane McDonald | CPG Senior Technical Leader| HDR Inc

Copyright © Lithium Extraction & Processing Forum. All Rights Reserved.